Industrial Scales Have to be Rugged And Durable Yet Simple

Various types of measurements are made in usual day to day activities, as also in manufacturing plants and laboratories. One has to measure dimensions of objects i.e. their length, breadth, height, and sometimes altitude as well. Different types of scales or other instruments like sextant are used for this purpose. Time is also measured to regulate industrial processes, or in laboratory experiments. In sporting activities too time plays an important role to determine duration of a game or to find time taken in a race. Different types of clocks and watches are used to measure time in these activities. Weight of so many items has also to be determined to assess their suitability for a particular purpose or to determine the correct quantity to be used. Here again there are various types of scales. Industrial scales fall into a class of their own.Industrial scales are used to weigh items ranging from very light items to heavy loads. There have to be different types of scales to cover such a wide range of weights. They have to be rugged as they are used often enough. They may be exposed to water or water vapor and so they have to be rust proof. Because of these requirements stainless steel is the preferred material used in making these scales. Despite these requirements they have to be simple to operate. They have to be accurate and reliable or else the quality of the process or the product to be manufactured will be compromised.

There are digital industrial scales on which you can readily read the weight. Additional features are available in some scales for labeling and barcoding.High class technology is employed in these scales to ensure that they show the correct weight and are reliable. Different types of industrial scales are on offer in the market and you can pick up the one that meets your requirements. You can also select them on internet as that will take less time than visiting various stores dealing in weighing scales. All the requisite information will be available on a number of web sites. You can know more about industrial scales at .

Who Was Nikola Tesla? By Wally Jukes

Nikola Tesla was born on July 9, 1856, in a very small village called Smiljan, in the province of Lika, Croatia. You may not know who this man is, but he invented the theories of electricity we use today.

Tesla finished his basic schooling in Croatia. He continued his education in the Polytechnic School in Graz and finished at University of Prague. He worked as an Electrical engineer in Germany, Hungary and France before coming to the United States in 1884 as an immigrant. When Tesla arrived in New York, he quickly obtained a job with Thomas Edison. Tesla worked for Edison for many years until finally there differences in methods separated the two men in 1885. There two main differences were that Edison believed that DC (Direct Current) was the power of the future. Tesla had been working on the AC (Alternating Current) power we have today. After the Tesla left Edison's lab, George Westinghouse, founder of the Westinghouse Electric Company, bought patent rights to Tesla's system of alternating-current.

There were many advantages to Tesla's alternating current vs. Edison's direct current. The advantages became prevalent when Westinghouse used Tesla's Alternating current to light the World Columbian Exposition at Chicago in 1893. It was after this that people started to realize this type of electricity's amazing abilities.

Tesla established a laboratory in New York City in 1887. His electrical experiments ranged from an exploration of electrical resonance and many studies of various lighting systems. In order to calm the public about the safety of Tesla's power system, he would hold exhibitions of his power in his laboratory. He would light a light bulb without wires allowing the electricity to flow through his body in a spectacular flurry of lighting and sparks.

Tesla became a United States citizen in 1891. His creative powers were at its peak. He worked on and developed many things including the induction motor, new types of generators and transformers. He also developed a system that transmitted his AC current. There are so many things that you use today that Tesla created. It is little know but the lamp we use to conserve energy, the fluorescent light was also one of his inventions. Tesla had many interests in electrical power. Tesla best known for his method of a wireless power transmission. The Tesla Coil. He envisioned that he would transmit power straight through the air to the user for free. Amazing and truly a ground breaking idea. He started construction on a wireless power transmission tower in 1900. The project was abandoned due to his lack of financial support. Tesla soon turned his genius to other inventions, such as power generating turbines. He continued to have many problems with his financial support and many of his ideas were shelved.

Nikola Tesla is one of my favorite inventors. He had electricity flowing through his blood. The man invented so many things we take for granted today and received very little credit. He was well ahead of his time. We may thing that Edison was a great inventor and he was, but Edison and many others took Tesla's ideas and exploited them to the things we have today for there own profit and took the credit themselves. We know now know this man was exploited and was not given credit where credit is due. Many Electrical Engineers still study Tesla's notes in order to find an idea that can be exploited and elaborated today.

Tesla is most credited with His Tesla Coil. This coil will deliver power through the air with a great deal of voltage, like a lighting bolt. The wireless age is upon us, is Wireless power next?

"Before I put a sketch on paper, the whole idea is worked out mentally. In my mind I change the construction, make improvements, and even operate the device. Without ever having drawn a sketch I can give the measurements of all parts to workmen, and when completed all these parts will fit, just as certainly as though I had made the actual drawings. It is immaterial to me whether I run my machine in my mind or test it in my shop. The inventions I have conceived in this way have always worked. In thirty years there has not been a single exception. My first electric motor, the vacuum wireless light, my turbine engine and many other devices have all been developed in exactly this way." Nikola Tesla

"Science is but a perversion of itself unless it has as its ultimate goal the betterment of humanity." Nikola Tesla

Nikola Tesla died in New York on January 7, 1943. There is a lot of information on Nikola Tesla available. I have only touched on the tip of this mans genius. Take some time and look him up. You will be amazed!

Disaster Management Practices Using Arcgis, Arcims, Arcsde And Sql Introduction

Emergency management is a dynamic process. Emergency preparedness for disaster management is the process of preparing, mitigating, responding, and recovering from any emergency situation. Individuals and organizations responsible for emergency management use different tools to save lives reduce human suffering and preserve economic assets before, during and after any catastrophic event. But nowadays, correct and timely information is a critical part of any successful emergency management program. The unique tool for emergency purpose is a web enabled Geographic Information System (GIS), which could provide accurate and timely information.

Generally, disasters are characterized by the scope of an emergency. An emergency becomes a disaster when it exceeds the capability of the local resources to manage it. Disaster is an event ?? meeting at least one of the following criteria: kills 10 or more persons; affects 100 or more persons; leads to a declaration of state of emergency; or leads to call for international assistance.? Disaster also involves humanitarian emergency, humanitarian actions, mass casualities etc. Effective disaster management requires rapid decisions and actions on behalf of relief workers. The scope of disasters is large (in terms of the number of people affected) and also the most important thing is the lack of resources to manage disasters.

Disaster management in developing countries exists within a complex political, social and economic environment, where a coherent and coordinated approach can be difficult to implement. As such, large-scale high magnitude ? low frequency disasters will continue to overwhelm local disaster managers, prohibiting effective management, particularly during the response phase. Although most natural disasters cannot be prevented, disaster losses can be minimized when appropriate actions are taken which utilize the latest technology and real-time spatial data/information. Through GIS and remote sensing we can make data / information available, and answer questions concerning the spatial and temporal dimensions for disaster management.

In today?s information technology disaster management rely on IT tools such as GIS, electronic mail, document sharing, web and database access. GIS database can be accessed for damage assessment or to locate critical infrastructure such as chemical facility that needs to be inspected and secured. High resolution images or video sent in a real-time situation from a remote location can allow experts to assess damage. Henceforth, GIS integrated with IT presents significant opportunities to greatly improve the effectiveness of emergency management.

Recently, the internet is gaining popularity as a mechanism that can facilitate the exchange of information/data (spatial and non-spatial) in time to warn a disaster. Initiatives such as the Global Disaster Information Network (GDIN) provide evidence of the importance and the value of disaster ? related information, as well as the need to obtain and share it effectively. The aim of GDIN is to ?provide the right information, in the right format, to the right person, in the right time to make the right decision? (GDIN, 2005). Spatial decision support systems, commonly considered as application specific software solutions (Rinner, 2003), are used in solving complex spatial problems where alternative decisions needs consideration. Wellar (1990) and Crossland et al. (1995) showed that the use of GIS as a type of Spatial Disaster Support System (SDSS) reduced the decision time and increased the accuracy of individual decision-makers, while Peng and Tsou (2003) the power and benefits of GIS. Integrating these technologies in an online, GIS based SDSS has the potential to increase the use and accessibility of spatial data, as well as the accuracy and efficiency of decision making, thereby improving the effectiveness of disaster response.

Hence for emergency preparedness and disaster management, GIS domains such as ArcGIS, ArcIMS, SQL Server and ASP were integrated and explored. Modules pertaining to emergency management were also developed by integrating the knowledge of experts, managers, programmers and developers, web enabled GIS techniques were used to manage nuclear, chemical, natural and many other disasters. These web enabled GIS based applications provides salient features for hazard alert, emergency response, emergency management, leverage investment, facilitates emergency alerts, periodic situational updates, community notifications, service disruptions, interagency coordination, e-Government solution and so forth.

Results and Discussion

Web Technology for Emergency Management

GIS system integrates ArcGIS, ArcIMS, SQL Server and ASP domain networks to form a web-based emergency preparedness / management system. Both spatial and aspatial were kept in GIS database. Coding for information retrieval, search capability, feature extraction were carried using ArcIMS and ASP. All the Objects, Methods, Modules and Components available within the software environment were utilized effectively, coded and programmed. The application is developed as a web enabled GIS on Microsoft Windows Platform. In all the applications for disaster management, Maps are the primary output of the system which, when displayed on computer screens, are more dynamic, potential and versatile (Alexander, 1991). This system complies with Coppock (1995) who points out that the technological developments intended for use in developing countries must be kept simple, considering the skills (both technical and bureaucratic) and resources available. The tools available in the webGIS applications and its features towards emergency management are formulated similarly. The potential of webGIS tools for nuclear, chemical and natural and many other disasters were discussed as follows.

Nuclear Disaster

Although construction and operation of nuclear power plants are closely monitored and regulated by the nuclear regulatory authorities, accidents, though unlikely, are possible. The most immediate danger from an accident at a nuclear power plant is the exposure to high level radiation.

Emergencies declared for nuclear power plant are defined in terms of notification of unusual event, alert, site area emergency and general emergency. Notification of unusual event means a problem has occurred at the plant, but no radiation leak is expected. Alert means that small amounts of radiation could leak inside the plant, but it will not affect the community. Site area emergency describes a more serious problem. Small amounts of radiation could leak from the plant. Area sirens may sound. Citizens are requested to listen to radio or television for instructions and be prepared to evacuate or find shelter. For addressing the above issues an emergency preparedness plan for nuclear power plant is developed using the recent scientific web enabled GIS technology.

The NuclearPlannerTM, a web GIS based application tool, provides a web-based evacuation preparedness for citizens living close to nuclear power plant, within the 10 mile radius. This is an important tool for strengthening relations with the community by reaching out to citizens with updated information and proactive planning tools. This delivers personalized response information to identify appropriate evacuation routes and response measures. Citizens living in risk area can identify their emergency reception centers, driving directions, and emergency exits. The system can also be integrated with weather, demographic data and real-time highway database and could help planners to evacuate peoples during the crucial time of natural disasters. Its major components includes end to end web-based solution, feature query, proximity analysis, emergency response plan module, evacuation routing module for public emergency, property query module, theme add in and on/off module, buffer analysis etc.

Chemical Disaster

Hazardous material are chemical substances, which if released or misused, can pose threat to the environment. These chemicals are used in industry, agriculture, medicine, research, and consumer goods. As many as 5,00,000 products pose physical or health hazards and can be defined as ?hazardous chemicals.? Each year, over 1,000 new synthetic chemicals are introduced. Hazardous materials come in the form of explosives, flammable and combustible substances, poisons, and radioactive materials. These substances are most often released as a result of transportation accidents or because of chemical accidents in manufacturing plants.

In the early hours of Monday, Dec 3, 1984 a toxic cloud of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas enveloped the hundreds of shanties and huts surrounding a pesticide plant in Bhopal, India. Later, a deadly cloud slowly drifted in the cool night air through streets in surrounding sections, sleeping residents awoke, coughing, and rubbing painfully stinging eyes. By the time the gas cleared at dawn, many were dead. Four months after the tragedy, the Indian government reported the parliament that 1,430 people had died. In 1991 the official Indian government panel charged with tabulating deaths and injuries updated the count to more than 3,800 dead and approximately 11,000 with disabilities. Considering the importance of emergency preparedness for these chemical disasters a webGIS tool Tier II Manager TM is developed.

This is a user friendly comprehensive tool developed to streamline the process of meeting emergency planning and emergency response needs. This provides a real-time access to critical hazardous chemical inventory and facility information. It addresses the needs of first responders, emergency response planners, facility submitters, and state authorities. Vulnerability reports, demographic reports, notifications, and payment modules make this system more valuable. This is ensured with multiple levels of security to appropriate groups in order to have access for appropriate data and functionality.

It streamlines the process of chemical inventory reporting. Chemical storage facilities can submit regulatory and planning information through a set of simple on-line forms. In following years, the facilities can revise the existing information anytime, significantly reducing the expense of repeating the entire submission process each year. Planners can access real-time information to create emergency response plans and carry out comprehensive oversight activities. When rapid response is necessary, first responders can map all chemical storage facilities and instantly retrieve other supplemental information like site plans while mobilizing toward the emergency site. This provides a comprehensive, cost-effective way to meet regulatory requirements and provides emergency response information at the critical moment decision-making in no time. Its major components includes end-to-end web-based solution, chemical storage facility analysis tool with respect to infrastructure and demographics, automated authority level query tool for spatial planning, query tool for an extensive database ? data retrieved in seconds and as an add-in for any back-end database platforms. For first responders, the application can be deployed wirelessly or as a standalone version, covers non-coverage areas and it also possess hierarchical level security for end users.

Disaster Warning System

As population and housing densities increase, the world continues to experience ever increasing danger and damages from natural and man made disasters. Deaths, injuries, and loss of property will increase around the world due to disasters, unless changes are made in the manner we respond to disasters. Most experts in disaster claims that the world?s population is at an ever increasing risk of death, injury, and property damages from disasters. Hence to notify the disaster and to minimize the risk a webGIS based Disaster Warning System, is developed.

This Disaster Warning System is aimed to continuously alert the most geographically appropriate emergency response personnel such as rescue, fire, police, and ambulance personnel, to allow much quicker and more accurate first response efforts and further reduce disaster impacts on lives and property.

Combining the power of GIS mapping analysis and notification capabilities, the system facilitates end-to-end response and recovery. It helps to analyze a situation, send out calls, and collect responses from thousands of people in an hour using flexible standard based tools. DWS differs from any location with an internet connection, providing powerful decision-making and proactive notification capabilities.

It brings together the best in speech technology with the power of mapping through GIS to provide Emergency Response Managers with the speed and flexibility to meet even the most challenging notification scenarios. It is developed using XML technology which provides an open standard that the Emergency Response community has been seeking. The easy-to-use application can be assessed by multiple agents from any location though a simple internet browser. With a set of personalized passwords, responders can customize a set of standard response forms, choose the targeted area for the notification using a simple GIS interface, and initiate the call. Recipients can hear the message spoken. The system can conduct dialog, map and collect critical response information, and trigger alerts and other dispatch. Easy-to-read reports, help one to rate and understand the notification, performance, identify which calls were answered, which ones never reached their intended recipients, and which recipients need help. It combines technologies to enable informed decision-making and communication when crucial situation exists. Its major components includes interactive mapping, speech and text-to-speech recognition, voice recognition, real time critical responses from clients, real time GIS mapping and multi-modal response, system interoperability and to communicate by using the advantage of XML.


Thus for nuclear, chemical and natural disaster webGIS based tools such as NuclearPlannerTM and ChemicalResponderTM will be very useful for emergency preparedness and disaster management practice. The paper also reveals that the web enabled GIS technology has got its unique potential for emergency preparedness management. These web enabled tools currently serve as a national and international application tools for emergency preparedness and disaster management. These tools were further upgraded by processing insitu data to increase the efficiency of disaster mitigation and management. The recent scientific tool, Disaster Warning System developed in webGIS environment is also in upgradation for proposing an effective disaster management plan in near future. Any now this tool is being upgraded in ArcGIS Server environment.

Teach Earth Science Effectively With An Educational Globe

Lit from behind by the early morning sun, a single round item sits against the window of a room used as a library. Spinning on a solid axis is one of the ways a person can get a good view of the entire model. Many people learn the geography of the world by using these items. One of the most differentiating features of this item is that the size of it can vary greatly. From large to tiny, these pieces can be displayed almost anywhere. The medium size of this globe is one of the more popular sizes. Because of their highly visual nature, these pieces have been reported to work better in teaching geography than regular textbooks. These replica worlds can bring the joy of having the planet in a room in your house. Those who have traveled across the planet and to many different locations will tend to enjoy an educational globe more than others. An educational globe can be crafted from any sort of material, and the only limit is the maker's, and sometimes the company's, imagination.

While those who are older tend to prefer wood or metal an educational globe, plastic is the safest option when giving a this item to a child as a gift.The oceans of the world on a model sphere will draw those who work near the sea or who are very fond of it. Elevation can also play a key role in how these globes look when they are finished. There are many types of an educational globe, and some show only landmasses while others depict accurate elevations of both land and sea. An educational globe made in this manner can either have a color code to display elevation, or more intricately embossed patterns.Because of the great reformation that came about when the Church of England separated from Rome, priests and those in charge of education became more lenient toward the idea that the world was round. Intellectuals and those who were fond of forward thinking and radical ideas had globes in their homes and offices.

Large amounts of revolutionary thinkers enjoyed and treasured their educational globe. A this item henceforth became one of the top symbols that represented change and great discourse. The middle and upper classes alike took great pride in choosing and buying a this item for each room of their home, as it was very fashionable to be very well informed with the ideals of the world.Colors of an educational globe varied from room to room and season to season, but in the office space one could always count on finding the same reliable metal globe for study. An educational globe soon became an essential addition to or in a classroom setting for those children who were to learn geography. Because they are such an integral part of learning in today's classrooms, these items are popular to this day. Many people look upon this item fondly as it was so important to their learning years.

Drosophila Researchers Win Prize

At its annual meeting in San Francisco on February 17, the American Association for the Advancement of Science presented the prestigious Newcomb Cleveland Prize to five researchers representing the teams that completed the sequence of the fruit fly. Gerald Rubin and Susan Celniker accepted the prize on behalf of the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP), and J. Craig Venter, Gene Myers, and Mark Adams represented Celera Genomics. BDGP is a partnership among Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; the University of California, Berkeley; and Baylor College of Medicine.

The 2000 prize, which recognized an outstanding paper published in Science between June 1, 1991, and May 31, 2000, was awarded for "The Genome Sequence of Drosophila melanogaster." The paper is a series of articles jointly authored by hundreds of scientists, technicians, and students from 20 public and private institutions in 5 countries.

Celera and BDGP began a collaboration in 1998 to determine whether the whole-genome shotgun- sequencing method pioneered by Venter could be used on organisms having many thousands of genes encoded in millions of DNA base pairs. The technique, previously tested successfully in much smaller bacterial genomes, proved in the larger fruit fly genome to be faster and more efficient than traditional methods

Modern Platform Scale – Beyond a Quality Strain Gauge

When digital scales first appeared on the scene they were adopted quite quickly. They were much easier to use then the mechanical scales that they replaced. Though once they had got established it soon became clear that there are very good digital scales and not so good ones. And the buyers became aware that a quality strain gauge is at the heart of a great performing digital scale. Which meant that high quality strain gauges became the key selling feature for quality digital scales.But as high quality strain gauges became a norm rather than the exception the buyers began to look for other aspects of the scale to decide which one is better. Even though individuals may buy scales only once in a while there are buyers who buy them quite often and often have orders for more than one scale.

These are the buyers whose feedback gets through to the manufacturers and initiates change. And now this feedback was about aspects other than the strain gauge. Like for example the material of construction. For many applications the scale needs to operate in a very hygienic environment and the surfaces of the scale should themselves be highly clean as well. In such cases the material of construction should be easy to clean and also be able to meet exacting hygiene standards. And the right material of construction is able to fit the bill and you will find stainless steel wash down floor scales that are designed for just such as application.You can also consider opting for other conveniences such as those offered by a wireless scale.

They take away the messy wires and make it simpler to make weight measurements at a location of your choice. Platform scales also need to be used along with an accessory such as printer. The high quality scales will usually have a high quality printer and an accessory option.Now that you know a little more about these scales you will want to check them out and see which one suits your needs. And you can do that comfortably and quickly by going online. You can see the latest digital scales at .

Mobile Phone A Necessity

Nowadays, a mobile phone has become a necessity for every human being as it is one of the most important mediums of communication. It has transformed the world into a global village. It has also become a fashion statement for everybody. There are lots of mobile phone brands available in the market and one can choose any of them depending on his choice and requirement. One should buy such a device which has all the essential functions in it. Internet facilities have made it quite easy to acquire information about various mobile phones. There are many websites which provide accurate and up-to-date information about the latest mobile phones. One can visit these websites to read the details about some of the latest mobile phones. These websites also publish many reviews on good mobile phones. One can read these reviews and enrich his knowledge on the latest mobile communication technologies such as Bluetooth, GPRS and Wi-Fi. Nowadays, most mobile users like to have slim and sleek mobile phones because if it is slim and sleek, then they can hold it in their hands quite comfortably. This will also help them to continue talking for a long duration.

Those who are fond of listening to music can opt for mobile phones which are specifically designed for this purpose and have got digital speakers. Music lovers can enjoy various kinds of music on it. Good mobile phones should also have good memory power so that the users can store sufficient information in it. It should also have good camera features. Most of the latest mobile phones are multi-purpose gadgets and are used for taking excellent pictures and video recordings. Another advantage of buying efficient mobile phones is that they are provided with an e-mail system. If a person has this feature on his mobile phone, he will hardly feel the need of using his personal computer. Good mobile phones do not necessarily cost a huge amount of money. If one is looking for a good quality gadget at a cheap price, he should make use of the numerous offers on expensive communication gadgets. These offers or discounts reduce the cost of expensive mobile phones and thus one saves a lot of money. To conclude, mobile phones have become an indispensable part of our lives; so one should choose such a mobile phone which fits into his budget and fulfils all his major needs.

Humic Acid Definition and Usage

Researchers believe that this is the missing link to optimal health and nutrition, which can change life for the better. Experts agree that this nutritional element should be used in conjunction with vitamins and minerals as a key dietary requirement. Since the discovery of this substance, pharmaceutical companies have rushed to have synthetic versions of the substance patented. However, it is naturally available in a much more potent form than the synthetic version, which could never be copied. humic acid is formed by Earth itself. The ancient deposits in the soil, is commonly known as humus. It is that organic part of the soil that stays behind after centuries of microbial decomposition of vegetation and animals. Coal and oil form as a result of further decomposition. Humic deposits are another strata, which at first was most unusual to geologists. The compound is dark in color and alkaline soluble. The substance acts as an acceptor or donor of electrons, depending on what is needed. Basically, it will bind to both negatively and positively charged electrons. This makes humic acid the most powerful scavenger of free radicals and a powerful natural anti-oxidant. Humic acid is a powerful immune booster. It also helps the body to manufacture glycoproteins which attach to killer T-cells. It acts as a modulator or a link between the cells in order to regulate the immune cells and preventing the cells from becoming unbalanced. T-cells play an important role in the immune response of the body. Cytotoxic Thymus cells destroy infected cellules. When activated, the T-cells secrete cytokines and proliferate. These cells are attacked by the HIV infection and when there is a decrease in CD4+ T cells, AIDS is the result. Regulatory T-cells, otherwise known as suppressor T-cells suppress the immune system to maintain a homeostasis. Autoimmune diseases result from this homeostasis of the immune system as immunocytes attack the healthy cells in the same body. This is often seen in victims of burn incidents and radiation sickness. The dead cells are attacked and this creates unwanted infections. However, humates cause the immune system to reduce infection by recognizing its own dead cellules. Several institutions are researching topical and internal humates to see how infections can be reduced in burn victims. Fulvic acid is a component of humate and is a very powerful chelator with unique abilities. Minerals that are life sustaining are placed in a phyto-state (chemical state) to make them readily absorbed by the organisms or cells. Toxic cells are chelated too and put in a chemical state that makes it harder to be absorbed by the cellules. It removes heavy metals including mercury and lead from the bloodstream. In soil, fulvic acid acts as a filter for toxic metals by grabbing and immobilizing it to prevent it from migrating or causing a chemical reaction. Crops grown in fulvic deficient soil can absorb toxins. The soil in which our food is currently grown is nutritionally depleted, which is why there is simply not enough nutrition in the food. This is why it is necessary to take humic acid supplements.

More on Cystic Fibrosis Part 4

Cystic fibrosis also affects the digestive system. In a healthy person, the pancreas produces chemicals (enzymes) which pass into the gut as food leaves the stomach. These enzymes break down the fat. If you have cystic fibrosis, the pancreas does not produce enzymes. Without these enzymes, the fat in food is not properly digested and it is difficult to gain weight. The feces contain an excess of fat and are oily and very smelly (BUPA, 2006). The presentation of unusual feces along with ongoing chest symptoms and failure to thrive in children are the three main factors which physicians will observe for when considering a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

The exocrine pancreas is the most profoundly affected gastrointestinal organ in cases of cystic fibrosis. Approximately 85-90% of cystic fibrosis patients suffer from pancreatic insufficiency from birth (Davis et al, 1996). Untreated pancreatic insufficiency can reduce fat absorption to as low as 40-50% and protein absorption is also impaired (Gow et al, 1981). The primary objective in the cystic fibrosis patient is to maintain normal growth into adulthood with the use of pancreatic replacement therapy and other nutritional support. Enzyme preparations are usually taken in capsule form and are available as a powder for young children. The drug is taken with every meal or snack to ensure that the fat and protein absorption is optimized.

Genetic Involvement
Cystic fibrosis is a genetically inherited disease caused by a faulty gene called the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator - or CFTR gene. In order to inherit the disease a faulty gene must be passed from both the father and the mother. In cases where only one faulty gene is passed the individual will then be a ?carrier? and not have acquired the disease themselves.
When both parents are carriers, with each pregnancy there is a:

? 1 in 4 chance of having a child with cystic fibrosis
? 1 in 2 chance of having a child who is a carrier
? 1 in 4 chance of having an unaffected child

There are several different types of genetic mutation which are associated with different degrees of severity of the disease (BUPA, 2006).

Due to advances in medical science cystic fibrosis can be diagnosed whilst the baby is still in the uterus. The use of chorionic villus sampling (CVS) allows for the detection of the disease before the baby is even born. In cases where both parents are known carriers awareness of whether the unborn infant has the disease is often desirable. The finding of two mutations of the disease confirms that it is present however the finding of only one does not ultimately exclude it. Siblings of a cystic fibrosis patient are at equal risk of having the disease, and often is the case that following diagnosis of one child, parents request that all children be screened, this is usually offered as a standard service to most families anyway.

Research into Cystic Fibrosis
The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation established a Research Development Program Center for research in cystic fibrosis with a five-year, $2 million grant in 1997. It was renewed in 2002 and 2007. The primary goal of the Center is to focus the attention of new and established investigators on multidisciplinary approaches designed to improve the understanding and treatment of cystic fibrosis.

The Center?s research efforts focus on several areas relevant to the understanding and treatment of cystic fibrosis: basic studies of the function, protein interactions, trafficking and processing of the cystic fibrosis gene product, CFTR; understanding the infection-inflammation issues that compromise the function of CF airways; the development of new therapies and diagnostic approaches for treating cystic fibrosis, and participation of Center investigators in clinical studies.

Educating People About Alternative Energies

Perhaps one of the most effective ways through which young people can learn about alternative energies would be to use PicoTurbine kits, books or even projects. This company, called PicoTurbine, is the main promoter of alternative energies, a company that has created awareness throughout the whole world of the numerous benefits of the large scale usage of such energies. The environment needs to be protected and alternative energies definitely take into account this aspect. Therefore, if humanity wants to benefit from the environment in the future, then active steps of protection need to be enforced.

PicoTurbine devices work on several concepts; for instance, they actively incorporate the knowledge on alternative energies and make sure people are remembered once in a while, of this approach. The company receives a lot of feedback from customers, thus modifying its solutions to traditional energies in a way young people seem to find fit. Therefore, young people get to put their hands directly on real life situation and be able to make a change. A suggestion the company has received was to conduct experiments on wind energy production, by using the common known picture wire necessary for the heating elements. PicoTurbines has also noted that when people think about wind energy, they generally conjure up the image of cold energy and therefore, are surprised to see in reality the benefits of this technology. A suggestion for the projects was to give the opportunity to young people to engage into group based projects and thus, conduct their own discoveries and pose their own questions to lead them to the creation of their own, virtual energy plant, capable of producing real time energy. The groups will then be able to see whether the experiments were efficient and which one of them was able to produce the biggest amount of electricity or the smallest amount of electricity. They could be then able to modify the projects once again and come up with revised versions of what they are working on.

PicoTurbine has even been implemented in school curricula; teachers are now starting to instill in the senses for their pupils the appreciation for the environment and the awareness for alternative energies. Children are being taught that alternative means solar, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric or biomass energies that can produce considerable quantities of electricity under given conditions .when combining alternative energies we are decreasing the dependence that countries have our traditional energy derived from fossil fuel. Foreign oil supplies are getting more expensive by the day, therefore it would be much less costly to produce the nation's own importer and if possible, then become the importer of energy. Judging from long terms effects, alternative energies are certainly less expensive that fossil fuel energies.

The company has also encouraged the sales of wind farms as well as solar arrays; these products are penetrating the market at growing rates and they are already becoming best sellers. To give you one example of how time has helped reduce the total cost for certain things, tale photo voltaic cells. Twenty years ago, they were evaluated at one thousand dollars per cell; now, each one of those cells costs only four dollars. Therefore, economists and specialists in alternative energies have denoted that it is possible to have the kilowatt being sold at one dollar, in 2015. thus, one needs to imagine the extraordinary impact that alternative energies would have on the entire world. Fossil fuels are starting to use their popularity, mainly because they damage to a large extent the environment and the air we are breathing. Thus, many cases of asthma attacks and pneumonias have been reported recently and the risks of developing allergies is extremely elevated. Such long term effects can even lead to cancer, therefore, it is advisable to switch to the alternative because this would mean no pollution, more protection to the environment and less money spent on energy costs.